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REFERENCES on Impact of Pornography

Pornography Intervention - A Training Resource
By Jim Messina, Ph.D., CCMHC, NCC, DCMHS-T

Baer, J.L., Kohut, T. & Fisher, W. (2015). Is pornography use associated with anti-woman sexual aggression? Re-examining the confluence model with third variable contributions. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 24(2),160–173. doi:10.3138/cjhs.242-A6


Black, S. (2013). The porn circuit: Understand your brain and break the porn habits in 90 days. Owosso, MI: Covenant Eyes, Inc.

Borg, C., de Jong, P.J. & Georgiadis, J.R. (2014). Subcortical BOLD responses during visual sexual stimulation vary as a function of implicit porn associations in women. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 9, 158-166. doi:10.1093/scan/nss117


Braithwaite, S.R., Aaron, S.C., Dowdle, K.K., Spjut, K. & Fincham, F.D. (2015). Does pornography consumption increase participation in friends with benefits relationships? Sexuality & Culture, 19, 513-532. DOI 10.1007/s12119-015-9275-4


Braun-Courville, D.K. & Rojas, M. (2009). Exposure to sexually explicit web sites and adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health 45,156-162. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.12.004


Butler, M.E., Holm, J.E. & Ferraro, F.R. (2011). Pornography's immediate effect on relationship satisfaction. PSI CHI Journal of Undergraduate Research,16(3), 113-122.


Chisholm, M. & Gall, T.L. (2015). Shame and the X-rated addiction: The role of spirituality in treating male pornography addiction. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 22, 259-272. DOI: 10.1080/10720162.2015.1066279


CovenantEyes. (2015). Pornography statistics: 250+ facts, quotes, and statistics about pornography use (2015 Edition). Owosso, MI: CovenantEyes (


Cox Communication. (2009). Teen Online & Wireless Safety Survey

Research Findings. Retrieved at:


Cox Communication. (2014). 2014 Teen Internet Safety Survey. Retrieved at:


Dedmon, J. (2002). Is the internet bad for your marriage? Online affairs, pornographic sites playing greater role in divorces. Press Release from The Dilenschneider Group, Inc., Nov. 14, 2002. Retrieved at: your-marriage-online-affairs-pornographic-sites-playing-greater-role-in-divorces76826727.html  


Doran, K. (2008). Industry size, measurement, and social costs. Presentation at Princeton University, Dec. 11-13 2008.

Edleman, B. (2009). Red light states: Who buys online adult entertainment? Journal of Economic Perspectives 23, 209-220.


Eldred, L. (2012). 5 Tips to Accountability on Smartphones. Retrieved at:


Foubert, J.D. (2013). Integrating religiosity and pornography use in the prediction of bysander efficacy and willingness to prevent sexual assault. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 41(3), 242-251.


Grubbs, J.B., Volk, F., Exline, J.J. & Pargament, K.I. (2015). Internet pornography use: Perceived addiction, psychological distress, and the validation of a brief measure. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 41(1), 83-106. DOI: 10.1080/0092623X.2013.842192


Health and Medicine (2016). Findings from University of Nottingham in sexual and reproductive health reported (Pornography addiction in adults: A systematic review of definitions and reported impact). Health & Medicine Week, 1716. Retrieved from


Hilton, D.L. & Watts, C. (2011). Pornography addiction: A neuroscience perspective. Surgical Neurology International, 2, 19.


Jones, L.M., Mitchell, K.M. & Filkelhor, D. (2012). Trends in youth internet victimization: Findings from three youth internet safety surveys 2000-2010, Journal of Adolescent Health, 50, 179-186.


Juniper Research (2013). 250 million to access adult content on their mobile or tablet by 2017  


Kühn, S. & Gallinat, J. (2014). Brain structure and functional connectivity associated with pornography consumption: The brain on porn. JAMA Psychiatry, 71(7), 827-834. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.93


Laier, C., Pekal, J. & Brand, M. (2014). Cybersex addiction in heterosexual female users of internet pornography can be explained by gratification hypothesis. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(8), 505-511.  DOI:10.1089/cyber.2013.0396


Lambert, N.M., Negash, S., Stillman, T.F., Olmstead, S.B.& Fincham, F.D. (2012). A love that doesn’t last: Pornography consumption and weakened commitment to one’s romantic partner. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 31(4), 410-438.

Leahy, M. (2009).  Porn university: What college students are really saying about sex on campus. Chicago: Northfield Publishing.


Lenhart, A. (2009). Teens and sexting: How and why minor teens are sending sexually suggestive nude or nearly nude images via text messaging.  Pew Internet and American Life Project. Dec. 15 2009.


Levert, N. P. (2007). A comparison of christian and non-christian males, authoritarianism, and their relationship to internet pornography addiction/compulsion. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity,14, 145–166. DOI: 10.1080/10720160701354771


Love, T., Laier, C., Brand, M., Hatch, L. & Hajela, R. (2015). Neuroscience of internet pornography addiction: A review and update. Behavioral Science, 5, 388-433. doi:10.3390/bs5030388  


Manning, J. (2005). Hearing on pornography’s impact on marriage & the family, U.S. Senate Hearing: Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Property Rights, Committee on Judiciary, Nov. 10, 2005. Retrieved at:    


McAfee (2012) The digital divide: How the online behavior of teens is getting past parents. June 2012. Retrieved at:  


Mitchell, K.J., Jones, L.M., Finkelhor, D. & Wolak, J. (2013). Understanding the decline in unwanted online sexual solicitations for U.S. youth 2000–2010: Findings from three youth Internet safety surveys. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(12), 1225-1236. DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.07.002


Mollborn, S. & Everett, B. (2010). Correlates and consequences of parent-teen incongruence in reports of teens’ sexual experience. Journal of Sex Research, 47(4), 314-329. DOI: 10.1080/00224490902954315


Nicholson, J. (2001). Web surfers prefer sex over MP3! Retrieved at:


Nielsen, E.J. & Kiss, M. (2015). Sexercising our opinion on porn: A virtual discussion. Psychology & Sexuality, 6(3), 118-139.


Ogasa, O. & Gaddam. S. (2011). A billion wicked thoughts: What the internet tell us about sexual relationships. New York: Plume.

Pariera, K.L. (2014). Perceived effects of instruction pornography on the self, partner, and others. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 30(3), 385-400.


Park, B.Y., Wilson, G., Berger, J., Christman, M., Reina, B., Bishop, F., Klam, W.P. & Doan, A. F. (2016). Is internet pornography causing sexual dysfunction? A review with clinical reports. Behavioral Sciences, 6. doi:10.3390/bs6030017


Perry, S.L. (2015). Pornography consumption as a threat to religious socialization. Sociology of Religion, 76, 436-458. doi:10.1093/socrel/srv043


Peskin, M.F., Markham, C.M., Addy, R.D.,  Shegog, R., Thiel, M., & Tortolero,S.R. (2013). Prevalence and patterns of sexting among ethnic minority urban high school students. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 16(6),1-6. DOI:10.1089/cyber.2012.0452


Pisegena, N. (2016). Probable cause to protect children: The connection between child molestation and child pornography. Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice, 36, 287-318.


Poulsen, F.O., Busby, D.M. & Galovan, A.M. (2013). Pornography use: Who uses it and how it is associated with couple outcomes. Journal of Sex Reserch, 50(1), 72-83. DOI:10.1080/00224499.2011.648027


Proven Men Ministries. (2014) Pornography Survey and Statistics. Retrieved at:


Reinert, D.F. (2012). Use of internet pornography: Consequences, causes and treatment. Seminary Journal, 18(2), 103-106.


Resch, M.N. & Alderson, K.G. (2014). Female partners of men who use pornography: Are honesty and mutual use associated with relationship satisfaction? Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 40(5), 410–424. DOI: 10.1080/0092623X.2012.751077


Ribner, D.S. (2014). Editorial: The pornography question. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 29(4), 375-376.


Rothman, E.F., Kaczmarsky, C., Burke, N., Jansen, E. & Baughman, A. (2015). ‘‘Without porn...I wouldn’t know half the things I know now’’: A qualitative study of pornography use among a sample of urban, low-Income, black and Hispanic youth. Journal of Sex Research, 52(7), 736-746. DOI: 10.1080/00224499.2014.960908


Sabina, C., Wolak, J. & Finkelhor, D. (2008). The nature and dynamics of Internet pornography exposure for youth. CyberPsychology and Behavior 11(6), 691-693. DOI:10.1089/cpb.2007.0179

Schneider, J.P. (2000). Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 7, 31-58.


Shim, J.W. & Paul, B.M. (2014). The role of anonymity in the effects of inadvertent exporsure to online pornography among young adult males. Social, Behavior and Personality, 42(5), 823-834.


Short, M.B., Kasper, T.E. & Wetterneck, C.T. (2015). The relationship between religiosity and internet pornography use. Journal of Religious Health, 54, 571-583. DOI10.1007/s10943-014-9849-8


Shucart, B. (2015). This is your brain on porn. Advocate, 1077, 24.


Stack, S., Wasserman, I. & Kern, R. (2004). Adult social bonds and use of Internet pornography. Social Science Quarterly 85, 75-88.


Stefens, B.A. & Rennie, R.L. (2006). The Traumatic Nature of Disclosure for Wives of Sexual Addicts. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 13, 247–267. DOI:10.1080/10720160600870802


Stewart, D.N. & Szymanski, D.M. (2012). Young adult women’s reports of their male romantic partner’s pornography use as a correlate of their self-esteem, relationship quality and sexual satisfaction. Sex Roles, 67, 257-271.

DOI 10.1007/s11199-012-0164-0


Štulhofera, A., Buškob, V. & Schmidtc, G. (2012). Adolescent exposure to pornography and relationship intimacy in young adulthood. Psychology & Sexuality, 3(2), 95–107


Szymanski, D.M. & Stewart-Richardson, D.N. (2014). Psychological, relational, and sexual correlates of pornography use on young adult heterosexual men in romantic relationships.  The Journal of Men’s Studies, 22(1), 64-82. DOI:10.3149/jms.2201.64


Szymanski, D.M., Feltman, C.E. & Dunn, T.L. (2015). Male partners’ perceived pornography use and women’s relational and psychological health: The roles of trust, attitudes and investment. Sex Roles, 73, 187-199. DOI 10.1007/s11199-015-0518-5


Tancer, B. (2008). Click: What millions of people are doing online and why it matters. New York: Hyperion


Van Ouytsel, J., Ponnet, K. & Walrave, M. (2014). The associations between adolescents’ consumption of pornography and music videos and their sexting behaviors. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 17(12), 772-778. DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2014.036


Weber, M. (2012). Internet pornography addiction and priestly formation: Medium and content collide with the human brain. Seminary Journal 18(2), 107-116.


Willoughby, B.J., Carroll, J.S., Nelson, L.J. & Padilla-Walker, L.M. (2014). Associations between relational sexual behaviour, pornography use, and pornography acceptance among US college students. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 16(9), 1052-1069.


Wilson, C. (2016). The truth about porn. New Scientist, 232(3093), 21-22.


XBIZ Research (2012). The 2012 XBIZ research report: Attitudes, views and trends impacting the adult entertainment industry, Pornography Statistics.

Retrieved at:


Zillmann, D. (2000). Influence of unrestrained access to erotica on adolescents’ and young adults’ dispositions toward sexuality,” Journal of Adolescent Health 27, 41-44.


Zook, M. (2007). Report on the location of the Internet adult industry, in Jacobs, K., Janssen, M. & Pasquinelli, M., 2007) C’Lick me: A netporn studies reader. Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures, 103-121.  Retrieved at: